Definition of sleep disorders
Sleep is considered a complex and important process in the restoration and renewal of the body, and it is also necessary for some physiological processes, such as organizing and treating experiences, and combining memories, and the importance of sleep appears through the negative effects experienced by patients, such as physical and psychological problems resulting from a disruption in the sleep process, and in In fact, sleep is affected by the body's daily changes, such as the body's physical and mental changes that take place within 24 hours, and these changes are organized through the nerves that respond to light, hormones , and heat, and these elements are also components of the biological clock, which will regulate the stages of sleep Sleeping up naturally,  is known as Sleep disorders as a disturbance in the quality of sleep, or its timing, Or the period of time spent on it, resulting in that the patient suffers from problems in performing the tasks and tasks assigned to him during the day, and the number of people with sleep disorders in the primary health care unit is estimated at 10-20% of patients, and it is worth noting that sleep disorders are related Closely related to both physical and psychological problems, sleep disturbances may be a symptom of mental illness , and may be one of the causes of some mental condition, or the cause of its severity. 
Types of sleep disorders
Some types of sleep disorders can be mentioned as follows: 
Insomnia: (English: Insomnia) defines insomnia as the face of difficulty going to sleep, or continue to sleep, it is the symptoms of insomnia: waking up too early, waking up during the night, and the face of difficulty to go back to sleep, feeling tired when you wake up .
Hypersomnia : Hyperactivity can be defined as falling asleep for a long period of time, or excessive sleep during the day, in which the patient suffers from a problem staying awake during the performance of his work, or even while driving, and the patient also suffers from the effects of And other symptoms of this problem, such as having difficulty thinking, focusing, and feeling a lack of energy in the body. 
Sleeping dysfunction: (English: Parasomnia) The definition of sleep dysfunction includes strange events that may occur during sleep away from sleep apnea, such as sleep walking, nightmares, sleep paralysis , sleep-related food disorders, and sleep aggression. . 
Movement disorders during sleep: This disorder includes several disorders that cause the movement of the body before bed, or during sleep, which results in having difficulty falling asleep, or continuing to sleep, or enjoying a comfortable sleep, and movement disorders during sleep include the following: 
Restless legs syndrome (English).
Frequent limb movement.
Leg cramp during sleep.
Systemic movement disorder (English: Sleep rhythmic movement).
Squeaking teeth (English: Bruxism).
Daily stress disorders: These disorders include confusion at the time and times of sleep, and these disorders can be summarized as follows:  Delayed sleep awake phase disorder. Advanced sleep phase disorder. Disturbed sleep and wake systems. Long-haul flight disorder (English: Jet lag). Periodic disorder.
Sleep-related breathing disorders: These disorders cause breathing problems during sleep, and the cause of these disorders is often linked to a blockage, or narrowing in the upper part of the respiratory system, and these disorders vary in how they affect both the breathing and sleep processes, Some of them may appear as a partial and intermittent blockage of the airway during sleep, which causes snoring without affecting the quality of sleep, and in other cases it may appear as a frequent breathlessness accompanied by a lack of oxygen, which causes sleep disturbance, and this results in feeling sleepy during the day. 
Causes of sleep disorders
The causes of sleep disorders differ according to the type of sleep disturbance, and sometimes the cause of these disorders is unknown, and the general causes of these disorders can be summed up as follows:  Having a medical condition, such as heart disease, lungs, or nerves. Mental illnesses, such as depression . Some medication options are used. Genetic factors. Other factors, including: Drink caffeine, drink alcohol, work in a periodical system, and get old.
Behavioral treatments for sleep disorders
Some behavioral therapies that may help relieve the symptoms of some sleep disorders are mentioned as follows: 
Exercise comfort exercises, which include relaxing muscles gradually ( in English: Progressive muscle relaxation), and deep breathing techniques, and self - hypnosis ( in English: Self hypnosis).
Cognitive therapy It aims to correct the patient's misconceptions, which may lead to suffering from insomnia.
Sleep hygiene, which refers to a set of behaviors, habits, and environmental conditions to consider when sleeping, which includes four main factors that can be detailed as follows:
The daily frequency, which affects the time of sleep, the number of hours , and the quality, and this factor is usually affected by exercise, time to sleep, naps, and exposure to light.
Aging, it is normal for the sleep pattern to change after the age of 40, as the suffering may begin to wake up frequently during the night, which affects the quality of sleep, and interaction with other health conditions that the patient suffers, which in turn may be one of the reasons for waking at night.
Psychological influences, such as exams, works, and duties that may affect the nature of sleep, so it is advised to practice specific rituals that help a person separate these influences from the time of sleep.
Caffeine , alcohol, and nicotine.
Environmental factors, from room temperature, darkness, and inconvenience.
Control the source of stress, and stressful conditions that may be present in the bedroom. Restricted sleep treatment: sleep disorder may result from prolonged bed rest.
Soothing Relaxation Music for Stress :